094 90 48200     Get SUPPORT

Aniar IT Services Blog

Looking Back at ARPANET

Looking Back at ARPANET

I don’t think we’re going too far out on a limb when we say that the Internet is one of the most amazing inventions ever concocted by humans. 50 years ago, the precursor to the Internet, ARPANET was launched by the U.S. Department of Defense at four west coast universities, changing the way people shared data forever. Let’s take a look at ARPANET and how it grew into the Internet we all use constantly today.

DoD Advanced Research

During the Cold War there was a constant need for coded systems to transmit data quickly. In the mid-1960s, the U.S. Department of Defense created what they called the Advanced Research Projects Agency (ARPA), which worked on integrating new technologies that would help the United States achieve its foreign policy goals. One of the scientists that was commissioned was Joseph Lickliter, who had the idea of connecting computers at important research centers. It was a way for engineers and intellectuals to collaborate on DoD-funded projects. The network, called ARPANET, was launched in 1969.

At first, growth was slow. Small packets were sent over telephone lines, but along the way there were many innovations that set the tone for the shared computing constructs that we regularly use today. One such innovation was packet-switching. Packet-switching allows a computer to connect to several other computers at once by sending individual packets of information. In this way, computers were able to constantly send and receive information. With this method each computer on ARPANET would have (what amounts to) an address book that is constantly updated. 

As the network grew, however, this packet switching model, which was beneficial, was just too slow to facilitate an accurate account of addresses on the system. So in 1973, the engineers at ARPA decided that Stanford University (a founding member) would keep a master address book that was kept up to date by network administrators. This decongested the network significantly.

By 1977, ARPANET had over 100 computers connected to it; and, with the age of personal computing starting to rear its head, changes started to come fast. It was about this time that other computing networks began to pop up. As they first started to connect with each other there was no interoperability between them, but this problem was remedied early in the 1980s with the standardization of what is called Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol (TCP/IP). This was the first time the world Internet was used. 

ARPA engineers realized pretty quickly that the connecting networks that were now using the same protocol set (TCP/IP) were too numerous and were going to be unmanageable. This is when the modern Domain Name System (DNS) was introduced. They separated all addresses by domains. The first level, or top-level, domains would dictate the type of organization that a packet was being sent to. Examples include .com and .edu. Today, there are over 1,000 top-level domains out there. 

A second-level domain provided the host where data packets would be delivered. Examples that you see today are amazon.com or cornell.edu. This system provided specific data packet routing, setting the stage for the modern-day Internet. 

The Internet

By the late 1980s the DoD decided that ARPANET was a success and shut it down. It was handed off to a private company called NSFNET in 1990. In 1992, the modern Internet Service Provider (ISP) was created as the U.S. Congress passed a law allowing commercial traffic on the newly formed Internet. 

Nowadays, the United Nations has proclaimed that Internet service is now a fundamental human right. This marvel of human ingenuity would not have been possible without ARPA and ARPANET. If you would like to see more articles about technology’s history, subscribe to the Aniar IT Services blog today.

Tip of the Week: Best Patch Management Practices
How You Should Judge Potential Password Management...
 

Comments

No comments made yet. Be the first to submit a comment
Already Registered? Login Here
Guest
Thursday, February 20 2020

Captcha Image

Mobile? Grab this Article!

QR-Code dieser Seite

Tag Cloud

Tip of the Week Security Technology Business Computing Best Practices Privacy Cloud Productivity Innovation User Tips Email Workplace Tips Microsoft Hosted Solutions Network Security Internet Data Hackers Software Google Efficiency Smartphones Hardware Data Recovery IT Support Tech Term Data Backup Mobile Devices IT Services Communication Windows 10 Managed IT Services Cybersecurity Communications Business Phishing Cloud Computing Small Business Gadgets Malware Users VoIP Android Computer Backup Collaboration Artificial Intelligence Mobile Device Smartphone Miscellaneous Network Saving Money Business Management Internet of Things Outsourced IT Information Server Windows Upgrade Spam Facebook Business Continuity Browser How To Office 365 Managed Service Social Media Router BDR Chrome Paperless Office Word Cybercrime BYOD Holiday Passwords Computers Windows 7 Applications Encryption Data Storage Infrastructure Patch Management Data Breach Staff Vulnerability Blockchain Save Money Operating System Ransomware Mobile Device Management Automation Data Protection Telephone System Two-factor Authentication Money Managed IT Apps Display Remote Monitoring Connectivity Settings Data Security Microsoft Office Virtualization Quick Tips History Government Networking Big Data Managed IT services Fraud Processor Redundancy Website Voice over Internet Protocol Human Resources Telephone Systems Content Management Virtual Assistant Keyboard Spam Blocking Social Engineering VPN Password Bandwidth Avoiding Downtime Bring Your Own Device IT Management Comparison Managed Services Provider Servers App Education Google Docs Wi-Fi Meetings Google Drive Vendor Law Enforcement Help Desk Telephony Augmented Reality Identity Theft Machine Learning Scam Digital Signage Private Cloud IT Plan Update Cryptocurrency Business Intelligence Software as a Service OneNote Training Access Control Sports Botnet Unsupported Software CES Disaster Recovery Manufacturing Outlook Computing Recycling Devices Shortcuts Hypervisor Skype Remote Worker Database Authentication Microchip Computer Fan Copiers Save Time Data loss Remote Workers Travel Remote Work Practices Document Management Camera Software Tips Investment Printing Cache Smartwatch Tools Work/Life Balance Virtual Reality Frequently Asked Questions Professional Services Recovery eWaste Thought Leadership Enterprise Content Management Mobility Vendor Management Start Menu Amazon Wiring Business Technology Search Engine FENG Hard Drive Sync Development Multi-Factor Security Proactive IT Cortana Alert Managed IT Service Charger Hosted Computing Printers ROI Personal WiFi Wireless Wireless Internet Health Project Management Millennials Cabling Excel Fiber Optics Legal Password Management Social Saving Time Amazon Web Services Accountants Firewall Password Manager Nanotechnology Bing MSP Net Neutrality Wireless Charging Inventory Entertainment Warranty Solid State Drive GDPR Flash Digitize HIPAA USB Employee Bitcoin Value Workforce Windows 10s Cables Tip of the week Trend Micro Criminal NIST Downtime Procurement Specifications Unified Threat Management OLED Using Data Business Mangement Smart Tech HVAC Trending Digital Signature File Sharing ISP Screen Mirroring Google Apps Printer Audit Physical Security Remote Computing HaaS IT Assessment 5G Electronic Medical Records Wire Compliance Employer-Employee Relationship Batteries Mobile Computing Default App Windows Server 2008 Shopping Addiction Root Cause Analysis Employee/Employer Relationship Online Shopping Biometric Security HBO Information Technology Hacker Gmail Virtual Machine The Internet of Things Credit Cards PDF Cryptomining Cast Workers YouTube Mouse Windows Server 2008 R2 OneDrive Data Management Google Search Virtual Private Network Telecommuting Smart Office Public Cloud IT Infrastructure Social Network Computer Care Safe Mode Security Cameras Evernote Cleaning IP Address Search Company Culture Customer Service Mobile Office CrashOverride Managing Stress Domains Managed Service Provider Windows 10 Personal Information Messaging Public Speaking Presentation Hiring/Firing Lithium-ion battery Twitter Fun Financial SMS Wireless Technology Tech Support Safety IBM Marketing Productivity Regulation Budget Competition Hard Drives Emergency Customer Relationship Management